Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmaceutical Analysis
Pharmaceutical Technology combines scientific aspects that are critical in the development and manufacture of new drugs, handling of medicines and medical devices. It consists of a number of categories:
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Process Technology, Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Quality, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Pharmacognosy, Pharmacology
Drug Delivery Systems
Drug delivery describes the method and approach to delivering drugs or pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics to their site of action within an organism, with the goal of achieving a therapeutic outcome. Issues of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are important considerations for drug delivery. Much research is now focusing on nanotechnology as a drug delivery method and other systems include:
Chemically Controlled Drug Delivery Systems
Osmotic Pressure Controlled Drug Delivery Systems
Carbon Nanotubes and Drug Delivery
Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Clinical pharmacokinetics is the discipline that describes the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs in patients requiring drug therapy. Pharmacodynamics is the study of the relationship between the concentration of a drug and the response obtained in a patient.
Pharmacogenomics and Bioinformatics
Pharmacogenomics refers to the effects of genetic polymorphism and genomic variants on drug response, its knowledge can help in selection of the optimal drug, dose, and treatment process and avoid adverse drug reactions. Generation more and more drugs in a short period of time with low risk has resulted in remarkable interest in bioinformatics .Online tools include Pharm GKB, The Drug Gene Interaction Database, Side Effect Resource, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database to name a few.
Pharmacometrics is an emerging science defined as the science that quantifies drug, disease and trial information to aid efficient drug development and/or regulatory decisions. Drug models describe the relationship between exposure (or pharmacokinetics), response (or pharmacodynamics) for both desired and undesired effects, and individual patient characteristics. Disease models describe the relationship between biomarkers and clinical outcomes, time course of disease and placebo effects. The trial models describe the inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient dis-continuation and adherence.
Protein and Antibody Therapeutics
Protein-based therapeutics are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential. Based on their pharmacological activity, they can be divided into five groups: (a) replacing a protein that is deficient or abnormal; (b) augmenting an existing pathway; (c) providing a novel function or activity; (d) interfering with a molecule or organism; and (e) delivering other compounds or proteins, such as a radionuclide, cytotoxic drug, or effector proteins.
Pharmaceutical chemistry is the study of drugs, and it involves drug development. This includes drug discovery, delivery, absorption, metabolism, and more. There are elements of biomedical analysis, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. Pharmaceutical chemistry involves cures and remedies for disease, analytical techniques, pharmacology, metabolism, quality assurance, and drug chemistry. Many pharmaceutical chemistry students will later work in a lab. Pharmaceutical chemistry leads to careers in drug development, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, research facilities, and more.
Natural Product Research
The natural product chemistry research focuses on biological resources and indigenous knowledge through scientific innovation. This includes identifying potential new pharmaceutical, food ingredients and cosmeceutical ingredients. The research build on the three important pillars of Bioprospecting which is Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and scientific innovation.
Medicinal/ Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design
Computational chemistry uses physics-based algorithms and computers to simulate chemical events and calculate chemical properties of atoms and molecules. In drug design and discovery, diverse computational chemistry approaches are used to calculate and predict events, such as the drug binding to its target and the chemical properties for designing potential new drugs. Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy
Pharmacoeconomics identifies, measures, and compares the costs and consequences of drug therapy to healthcare systems and society. The perspective of a pharmacoeconomic evaluation is paramount because the study results will be highly dependent on the perspective selected. Healthcare costs can be categorized as direct medical, direct nonmedical, indirect nonmedical, intangible, opportunity, and incremental costs.
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology applies the methods and principles of Nano science and nano medicine to pharmacy to develop new drug delivery systems which can overcome the drawbacks of conventional drug delivery systems.
Experimental and clinical therapeutics
The focus of the Clinical and Experimental Therapeutics program is translational research, which involves studies that occur at the interface of the laboratory bench and patient bedside. Experimental therapeutics has emerged as a key field at the intersection of molecular discovery and patient care, deploying translational medicine to advance disease treatment and promote patient wellness. The evolution in experimental therapeutics highlights the critical role of applied, or clinical, pharmacology in defining optimized patient care
Bioavailability and drug absorption
Bioavailability has been defined as the relative amount of a drug administered in a pharmaceutical product that enters the systemic circulation in an unchanged form and the rate at which this occurs. The study of drug absorption is of critical importance in developing new drugs and establishing the therapeutic equivalence of new formulations or generic versions of existing drugs.
Clinical Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapy
Clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy focuses on the relationship between drugs and their safe and efficient use in humans. It focus on a) the design and conduct of clinical trials b) regulatory and legal aspects of medicinal product development, intellectual property rights; and c) health economic aspects of medicinal products
Biochemical Pharmacology use methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, structural biology, cell biology, and cell physiology to define the mechanisms of drug action and how drugs influence the organism by studies on intact animals, organs, cells, sub-cellular compartments and individual protein molecules. Drugs are also used as probes to discover new information about biosynthetic and cell signaling pathways and their kinetics
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Pharmacology is the study of drugs. It involves examining the interactions of chemical substances with living systems, with a view to understanding the properties of drugs and their actions, including the interactions between drug molecules and drug receptors and how these interactions elicit an effect. Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals (including drugs) on living systems and the means to prevent or ameliorate such effects. There are many sub-specialities of toxicology including: clinical toxicology, regulatory toxicology (both of these found in the pharmaceutical and toxicology industry), forensic toxicology, occupational toxicology, and risk assessment.
Drugs that are not developed by the pharmaceutical industry for economic reasons but which respond to public health need. The indications of a drug may also be considered as ‘ orphan ‘ since a substance may be used in the treatment of a frequent disease but may not have been developed for another, more rare indication.